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Piaget’s Four Main Stages of Cognitive Development

24/02/2014 - by Gabriella Philippou
His father was a professor of medieval literature with an interest in local history.  Being the oldest child, Jean was quite independent and took an early interest in nature, especially the collecting of shells.  He published his first “paper” when he was ten – a one page account of his sighting of an albino sparrow. 

In 1918, Piaget received his Doctorate in Science from the University of Neuchatel.  He worked for a year at psychology labs in Zurich and at Bleuler’s famous psychiatric clinic.  During this period, he was introduced to the works of Freud, Jung and others.  In 1952, he became a professor at the Sorbonne.

His Theory of Cognitive Development is described briefly here below.

Piaget’s four main stages of cognitive development are:

•    The sensori-motor stage (from birth to 2 years);
•    The pre-operational stage (from 2 up to 6 years);
•    The concrete operational stage (from about 6 to 12 years); and
•    The formal operational (from the age of 12 onwards).

The Sensori-motor stage is divided into six sub-stages:

Stage 1

Age
0-6 weeks
Sub-stage      
1 Reflexes  
Typical behaviours
Practice of innate reflexes such as sucking, grasping, looking.

Stage 2

Age
6-16 weeks
Sub-stage      
2 Primary circular reactions  
Typical behaviours
Repetition of body movements for their consequences: e.g. putting hand to mouth and sucking it.

Stage 3

Age
4-8 months
Sub-stage      
3 Secondary circular reactions  
Typical behaviours
Repetition of actions that have effects on the environment: e.g. kicking to shake cot and produce a sound.

Stage 4

Age
8-12 months
Sub-stage      
4 Co-ordination of means-ends relations
Typical behaviours
Child begins to combine actions to achieve results: e.g. pulling a cover away to get a rattle which is then shaken.

Stage 5

Age
12-18 months
Sub-stage      
5 Tertiary circular reactions
Typical behaviours
Experimentation begins as the child explores new ways of acting on the environment.  Adults are drawn into activities.

Stage 6

Age
18-24 months
Sub-stage      
6 Mental combinations
Typical behaviours
Representation becomes apparent through emergence of language and symbolic play.  Child becomes able to plan behavior in simple ways.

During the Sensori-motor Stage, the child’s development is concerned with mastering the interactions of information from the senses and from motor actions in relation to the physical world.  Learning at this stage is concerned with solving physical problems.  The Sensori-motor stage concludes with the emergence of symbolic function:  the ability to represent schemas which begins to free the child from a total involvement in action.  A schema is an organized sequence of behaviour.  Simple examples include sucking and grasping whilst a more complex example includes the putting on a pair of socks.

The Pre-operational Stage commences at approximately the age of two and ends at around the age of six.  It is first detectable with the establishment of object permanence and ends with the emergence of “Concrete Operations”.  With regards to object permanence, the child becomes aware that a physical object is permanent and that it continues to exist even when the child no longer interacts with it.  During this stage, the child is characterized largely by dependence upon perceptual features of the world and thinking is intuitive in nature rather than logical.  Although, the child is capable of some early forms of symbolic representational thought e.g. during play, the crib for the child’s doll may be represented through the usage of a box.  The pre-operational child also lacks an understanding of underlying constancies in the world: for instance when a piece of clay is rolled out, the child is unable to comprehend that, even though its appearance is different, the amount of clay is exactly the same.

The Concrete Operational Stage, which starts from about six and ends at around the age of twelve, begins with the establishment of conservation and ends at around twelve with the beginning of the abstract thinking which marks the formal operational period.  The “conserver” child understands that the quantity is preserved no matter what transformations are applied so long as nothing is added and nothing taken away.  However, it appears that various applications of this principle by the child require different amounts of experience i.e. the conservation of number is observed before conservation of length, and weight and volume appear later still.

The Formal Operational Stage, which starts from the age of twelve, is regarded as the culmination of “intellectual” development.  It involves abstract thinking which is no longer tied to physical objects and events.  It is propositional in nature and is concerned with the hypothetical and possible rather than the real and the perceived.

By Gabriella Philippou, Psychotherapist-Counsellor
Trainer for Personal, Professional and Business Development
Tel: +357 99342225  Email: gabriellaphilippou@cytanet.com.cy

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  • 16/02/2014 - by Gabriella Philippou

    The advice given here below aims at enabling you to achieve all the aforementioned.

    Short-Term Ways to Handle Stress

    •    Relax where you are.  Sitting in a comfortable position, place your left hand over your navel and rest your right hand on top of your left.  Breathe deeply through your nose, feeling your hands rise as your abdomen fills with air.  Still inhaling, count to three and feel your chest expand.  Hold your breath momentarily, then release it.  Repeat four times, but stop if you become light-headed.

    •    Take a break.  Get some exercise or fresh air, or go somewhere private and yell and cry.

    •    Ask yourself whether it is worth being upset over the situation.  You can choose to stay calm and ignore it.  If the issue is important, confront it directly, talk it out with a sympathetic  friend, or write it out in a letter that you do not send.

    •    List all the things you think you need to do right away.  Then, prioritize the list and only do the top few.  The rest can be first priority tomorrow.

    Long-Term Ways to Handle Stress

    •    Seek your own stress level.  Strive for excellence within your limits.

    •    Choose your own goals.  Don’t live out choices others have made for you.

    •    Become part of a support system.  Look out for yourself by letting friends help you when you are under too much stress and by helping when they are overloaded.

    •    Think positive.  Your mind sends signals to your body to prepare for danger whenever you think about possible negative outcomes and you become tense regardless of whether the event happens.

    •    Make decisions.  You can learn to live with the consequences or change your mind.  In general, any decision – even consciously deciding to do nothing – is better than none.

    •    Keep your expectations realistic.  Do not expect perfection from yourself or others.  Expect some problems reaching your goals and realize that you can solve most of them with practice.

    •    Accept what you cannot change.  If a problem is beyond your control, you are better off accepting it for now than spinning your wheels.

    •    Anticipate potentially stressful situations and prepare for them.  Decide whether the situation is one you should deal with, postpone or avoid.  If you decide to deal with the situation, practice what you will say and do.

    •    Live in the present.  Learn from the past and move on.

    •    Manage your time.  Prioritizing and planning can keep the demands of college/professional life from becoming overwhelming.

    •    Take care of your health.  Exercise regularly, eat a balanced diet, get enough sleep and avoid alcohol and other mood-altering drugs.

    •    Take time for yourself.  Make yourself your priority.  Find time to relax – even if only for a few minutes – every day.

    How to Manage Your Stress

  • 14/02/2014 - by Gabriella Philippou

    The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and vice versa. 

    The working of the brain may be shown as follows:

    Left Hemisphere (Right Side of the Body)

    • Speech/verbal
    • Logical, mathematical
    • Linear, detailed    
    • Sequential
    • Controlled
    • Intellectual
    • Dominant
    • Worldly
    • Active
    • Analytic    
    • Reading, writing, naming
    • Sequential ordering
    • Perception of significant order
    • Complex motor sequences

    Right Hemisphere (Left Side of Body)

    • Spatial/musical
    • Holistic
    • Artistic, symbolic
    • Simultaneous
    • Emotional
    • Intuitive, creative
    • Minor (quiet)
    • Spiritual
    • Receptive
    • Synthetic, Gestalt
    • Facial recognition
    • Simultaneous comprehension
    • Perception of abstract patterns
    • Recognition of complex figures

    Invention is a right brain function. The right hemisphere synthesizes patterns from diverse-looking data.  It has the capacity to consider many facts at a time without the need to sequence them.  It is non-judgemental, and conclusions can be based on incomplete patterns, feelings and visual images.  Furthermore, the right brain has access to a longer-term memory than the left, which means that a greater number of experiences and facts become available during the thought process.

    Written by Gabriella Philippou, Psychotherapist-Counsellor, Trainer for Personal, Professional and Business Development, MWAPCEPC, MPCE-Europe, MEAP, MBACP, AMAPA, FMCAPCPC, FMPAP

    Tel: 99342225  Email: gabriellaphilippou@cytanet.com.cy  Website: http://www.gp-cec.com

    Becoming Familiar With The Functions Of Your Brain So As To Attain Your Goals

  • 10/12/2013 - by Prokopis Prokopiou

    ΤΟ ΚΕΝΤΡΟ ΜΑΣ ΖΗΤΑΕΙ ΚΟΠΕΛΛΑ
    ΕΥΠΑΡΟΥΣΙΑΣΤΗΝ ΚΑΙ ΝΑ ΓΝΩΡΙΖΕΙ ΤΑ ΒΑΣΙΚΑ ΤΟΥ ΜΑΣΑΖ ΓΙΑ ΝΑ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΕΙ ΜΑΖΙ ΜΑΣ ΣΤΟ
    ΚΕΝΤΡΟ ΜΑΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΛΑΡΝΑΚΑ .... ΓΙΑ ΠΕΡΙΣΣΟΤΕΡΕΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΕΣ ΣΤΕΙΛΤΕ ΜΟΥ ΕΜΑΙΛ ΣΤΟ
    relaxbody40@gmail.com .... ΣΑΣ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΩ .... !!!!!!!!!!

    ΖΗΤΕΙΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΣΩΠΙΚΟ

  • 10/12/2013 - by Prokopis Prokopiou

    ΤΟ ΚΕΝΤΡΟ ΜΑΣ ΖΗΤΑΕΙ ΚΟΠΕΛΛΑ ΕΥΠΑΡΟΥΣΙΑΣΤΗΝ ΚΑΙ ΝΑ ΓΝΩΡΙΖΕΙ ΤΑ ΒΑΣΙΚΑ ΤΟΥ ΜΑΣΑΖ ΓΙΑ ΝΑ ΕΡΓΑΣΤΕΙ ΜΑΖΙ ΜΑΣ ΣΤΟ ΚΕΝΤΡΟ ΜΑΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΛΑΡΝΑΚΑ .... ΓΙΑ ΠΕΡΙΣΣΟΤΕΡΕΣ ΠΛΗΡΟΦΟΡΙΕΣ ΣΤΕΙΛΤΕ ΜΟΥ ΕΜΑΙΛ ΣΤΟ relaxbody40@gmail.com .... ΣΑΣ ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΩ .... !!!!!!!!!!

    ΖΗΤΕΙΤΑΙ ΠΡΟΣΩΠΙΚΟ

  • 08/12/2013 - by Gabriella Philippou

    Left Hemisphere (Right Side of the Body)

    • Speech/verbal
    • Logical, mathematical
    • Linear, detailed    
    • Sequential
    • Controlled
    • Intellectual
    • Dominant
    • Worldly
    • Active
    • Analytic    
    • Reading, writing, naming
    • Sequential ordering
    • Perception of significant order
    • Complex motor sequences

    Right Hemisphere (Left Side of Body)

    • Spatial/musical
    • Holistic
    • Artistic, symbolic
    • Simultaneous
    • Emotional
    • Intuitive, creative
    • Minor (quiet)
    • Spiritual
    • Receptive
    • Synthetic, Gestalt
    • Facial recognition
    • Simultaneous comprehension
    • Perception of abstract patterns
    • Recognition of complex figures

    Invention is a right brain function. The right hemisphere synthesizes patterns from diverse-looking data.  It has the capacity to consider many facts at a time without the need to sequence them.  It is non-judgemental, and conclusions can be based on incomplete patterns, feelings and visual images.  Furthermore, the right brain has access to a longer-term memory than the left, which means that a greater number of experiences and facts become available during the thought process.

    Written by Gabriella Philippou, Psychotherapist-Counsellor, Trainer for Personal, Professional and Business Development, MWAPCEPC, MPCE-Europe, MEAP, MBACP, AMAPA, FMCAPCPC, FMPAP

    Tel: 99342225  Email: gabriellaphilippou@cytanet.com.cy  Website: http://www.gp-cec.com

    Becoming familiar with the functions of your brain so as to attain your goals

 

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